N. Stokolos, R. Sheretyuk Botanical Gardens of the Roman Catholic Order of Piarists, as a Component of the Cultural and Artistic Space of Volyn (18th — the 1st Third of the 19th Cent.)

DOI: 10.20535/2307-5244.51.2020.220175

National University of Ostroh Academy

Rivne State University of Humanities

The purpose of the study is to clarify the circumstances of the existence of
school botanical gardens of the Roman Catholic Order of Piarists, which functioned
in Volyn during the XVIII — first third of the XIX century, and to analyze garden art of the region. The methodology of the research is based on systematic
analysis, general scientific methods of systematization and generalization, the
method of comparative analysis. The scientific novelty consists of systematization
of all empirical material available at present in the national art criticism about
the functioning of botanical gardens at the Volyn Piarists monasteries, as well as
of the attempt to carry out analytical generalizations regarding their phenomenon.
It was concluded that Piarists botanical gardens were a unique component
of the cultural and artistic space of Volyn because they laid the foundations for
the formation of landscape art in its territory. It is justified, that their activity
was related to the needs of educational, scientific and experimental, artistic and
economic work of Piarists monks and their pupils. At the same time, a significant
direction of the activity of botanical gardens of the Order of Piarists in Volyn
was that they became the centers of training botanists, landscape designers, and
gardeners, and some of them became outstanding figures in these industries. It is
outlined that the school botanical gardens of the order of Piarists in Volyn were
one of the manifestations of the European culture of parks in those days, strongly
connected with the arrangement of greenhouses in the palace and park ensembles
of szlachta in Right-Bank Ukraine. The closure of the public educational
establishments as one of the manifestations of the reaction of Russian autocracy
to the Polish rebellion of 1830–1831 led to a gradual decline and, ultimately, to
the destruction of their school botanical gardens.

Keywords: Piarists order, Volyn, school botanical garden, greenhouse, exotic
plants, garden-park art.


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