L. L. Levchenko Ukrainian Campaign of Greek Army in 1919: Its Influence on the Future of Ukrainian Greeks (The Case of Mykolayiv and Nearby Region)

DOI: 10.20535/2307-5244.49.2019.189549

The State Archives of Mykolayiv Region, Petro Mohyla Black Sea University

Taking into account the importance of studying the Ukrainian Revolution
(1917–1921) and the centenary of the Ukrainian campaign of the Greek Army
(1919), the author analyzed the presence of the Greek military contingent in Mykolayiv
region in 1919. The consequences of the Ukrainian campaign of the Greek
Army for the Ukrainian Greeks is tackled on the example of the Greeks of Mykolayiv.
Events in Mykolayiv, Snigurivka, Veselinovo followed the scenario that
unfolded in the southern part of Ukraine (Berezivka, Kherson, Odesa, Sevastopol,
and Crimea) during of the intervention of the Entente at the time of the Directory (1919) and the Stalinist repressions (1937). The case is placed in a complex
global context of the struggle of the Entente against Bolshevism, the Pontian
movement for self-determination, Greek-Turkish relations. The article also investigates
reasons for the Greek government to send the troops to Ukraine and
the consequences of this campaign for Greece and the Pontic Greeks.
The analysis showed that Greece sent the troops to Ukraine not to fight against
the Bolsheviks and support the Directory. It pursued its own goals. The Greek
government tried to attract support from France at the Paris Peace Conference
to resolve territorial issues and save the persecuted Greeks in the Ottoman Empire.
Nevertheless, the Greek soldiers bravely fought against the Bolsheviks in the
South of Ukraine. The Entente, the Directorate, and the Volunteer Army failed to
create a common front against the Bolsheviks who directed against the Entente
not only a regular army but also guerrilla attacks and agitation. The local Greek
population supported the Greek troops in Mykolayiv. It supplied the military with
food and served as interpreters. In this way, the Mykolayiv Greeks fought against
the Bolsheviks. This fact served a ground for Stalinist repressions of 1937. The
NKVD sentenced to death and executed all Greeks in the Mykolayiv area, whose
personal involvement in the Ukrainian campaign of the Greek Army in 1919
found proof. A similar fate awaited Kherson, Odesa, and Crimean Greeks in 1937.
Keywords: Ukrainian Revolution, Mykolayiv, Kherson, Odessa, Directory,
Entente, Greeks of Ukraine, Ukrainian campaign of the Greek Army, 1919.


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