The State Institution «Institute of World History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine»
The article examines the historical path of formation and both political and
legal foundations of the functioning of the autonomy of South Tyrol, which became
a part of the Italian Republic against the background of resolving interethnic contradictions in the post-war period. The author clarifies the long-term difficulties
on this path in the interwar and post-war period, as well as highlights
the role of international influence in establishing the principles of respect for the
rights of national (German-speaking) minorities. The study analyzes Nazi Italy’s
repressive measures against South Tyrol, including the banning of German
schools and banks; discrimination against national minorities; the dissolution
of their clubs and associations, the banning of historical German and Ladin toponyms;
and the Italianization of German surnames.
In the article, we considered separately the government’s policies and measures
in the post-war years regarding the settlement of the situation and the restoration
of the rights of the German-speaking population of South Tyrol. Also, we
analyzed domestic and international legal factors related to the implementation
of the autonomous status of the region. It is pointed out that long-term conditions
for the German-speaking population did not correspond with the main provisions
of international agreements signed by Italy. Also, the failure to give the German
language an official status and other complications led to the radicalization of
the separatist movement.
The contemporary “extended autonomy” status for South Tyrol, under which
the German-speaking and Ladin populations have their provincial parliament
and government, is presented in the national and European parliaments. In our
research, we focused on the factors of successful development and management
of this autonomous region. Based on the analysis of the constituent conditions of
“extended autonomy”, the author conceptualizes the provisions on the possibility
of other states to use a system of measures at different levels to resolve inter-ethnic
conflicts on the borders of neighboring countries and certain elements of this
experience of resolving ethnic conflicts.
Keywords: Austria, Italy, South Tyrol, Landtag, «extended autonomy», Euroregion, interethnic conflict, place names, language of instruction.