L. Vynohrodska, I. Potekhina, Yu. Dolzhenko Formation of the Socio-Spatial and Anthropological Structure of Vinnytsia According to Archaeological (the 13–16th Cent.) and Anthropological (the 18–19th Cent.) Materials

DOI: 10.20535/2307-5244.51.2020.220174

Recently, the interest of national science in studying the urbanization process
of Ukrainian cities in the Lithuanian-Polish period has growing. This process took place in the complex conditions of constant attacks from the southern neighbors.
This is especially true for the cities of Eastern Podillya Region (River Bug basin)
in the ХІІІ–ХVІ centuries, a border area at the junction with the Steppe, which
was a buffer zone during the raids of the Crimean Tatars and Turks.
This article publishes the results of archaeological research in Vinnytsia, which
allowed to clarify the original foundation of the city. It was possible to trace the
development of its socio-spatial structure and its polycentrism, the interaction of
indigenous features of the Kievan Rus’ time with Eastern and Western cultures in
everyday life, house-building (presence of raw bricks in the buildings of ХІІІ–ХV
centuries, and finger-bricks — in the cultural layer of the ХVI century). During
the research, at least two places with materials of the ХІІІ–ХV centuries were
noted (one of them was fortified). The excavations on the Castle Hill in the
Old Town have proved that Vinnytsia Castle, destroyed by a quarry in the XIX
century, was built on the settlement of the Kyivan-Rus’ time in the XIII century.
This was confirmed by the remains of dwellings from the middle of the XIII to
the beginning of the XIV centuries, built according to the Kievan Rus’ tradition,
which were excavated in the suburb. The suburb was repeatedly set on fire, and
housing was rebuilt.
On the territory of one of the estates, six furnaces were recorded, located
one above the other with a slight offset. The material culture of the suburbs in
ХІІІ–ХV centuries was marked by poor findings, consisting mainly of pottery
made on a hand-made potter’s wheels. These are pots of medium and small
size, decorated with one or more wavy lines. No ceramic tableware was found,
apparently wooden utensils were used. Archaeological research in Vinnytsia has
shown that the primary city in the post-Mongol period was genetically related to
the Kyivan-Rus’ settlement on the Castle Hill, and a suburb with manor houses
buildings was located on the site.
Anthropological analysis of materials from burials of the XVIII-XIX centuries in
the Old Town testifies to the affiliation of Vinnytsia residents to a large Europeoid
race. They are characterized by brachycrania, relatively wide and well-profiled
face, strongly protruded nose, moderately high orbits and fully matches with
the Central Ukrainian craniological type. The closest in anthropological
characteristics to the inhabitants of Vinnytsia were the populations of the territory
of Volyn’.

Keywords: Eastern Podillya Region, historical city, material culture of the
ХІІІ–ХV cent., anthropological materials of the XVIII–XIX cent., urbanization.

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