P. P. Tkachuk, A. I. Kharuk, M. A. Verkhoturova PRODUCTION OF ARTILLERY IN LVIV IN THE XV–XVIII CENT. AND PARTICIPATION OF THE UKRAINIANS IN IT

DOI: 10.20535/2307-5244.50.2020.210117

The article describes the events that accompanied the process of the appearance, production, and decline of artillery production in Lviv in the XIV–XVIII centuries. The factors that have become prerequisites for setting up the production of guns in Lviv are analyzed. An important factor influencing the development of metalworking and weapons production in Lviv was the rich deposits of marsh ore from the Dniester along the Zubra River valley to Lviv. Long before the casting of artillery in the city was already pouring bells.
Due to its favorable geographical location, Lviv was an important center of trade and crafts, which in turn contributed to the rapid emergence of new weapons in the city. The initial period of development of artillery production is characterized, the preserved Lviv bell tower of the XІV century is described from the holdings of the Museum of the Polish Army, it was concluded that its design corresponds to the requirements of the time.

The key moments of the development of artillery production in Lviv in the XVIXVII centuries are considered with an emphasis on the ethnic origin of foundries operating in the city. The influence of European production technologies is monitored through foreign craftsmen who worked as a sworn city foundries. The high authority of Lviv foundries is evidenced by the right to supervise masters of their profession throughout the territory of the Rzeczpospolita on a par with Krakow’s colleagues. We do not find any documentary references to the involvement of Ukrainians in working with city guns. Obviously, this is due to the general confrontation between the communities in the city at the time.

Military-political and economic reasons for the actual cessation of production of artillery after the invasion of Charles XII’s troops are examined. An attempt to resume casting in Lviv at the beginning of the XVIII century is described. On the basis of the analysis of some documents of the Epiphany fraternity and a comparative analysis of the image of the figures of saints on guns, it is established that I. Polyansky — the author of the last known series of guns poured in Lviv, was of Greek Catholic faith, that is — Ukrainian in origin.

Keywords: artillery XIV–XVIII centuries, Lviv, production of guns, Ukrainian craftsmen, ornament.

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