The article deals with the process of formation of military archeology as a scientific discipline in the ХІХ and early ХХ centuries on the territory of Ukraine, which was part of the Russian Empire. The authors found that the nineteenth century was a period of differentiation of scientific knowledge and the era of the establishment of archeology as an independent branch of science. It should be noted that among the researchers of antiquities there were many military personnel for whom the interest was not only the search for treasures, but also the scientific study of the past. At the turn of the ХІХ and ХХ centuries military archeology separated into a specific direction of knowledge about the past. The objects of military-archeological research at this time were fortifications, battlefields, military burials, weapons and ammunition. The main tasks for researchers of military archeology have become the recording and attribution of discoveries, their conservation and restoration, the memorialization of military historical knowledge. It is shown that military-archeological research was carried out by both professional scientists and antiquities lovers, in particular intellectuals who served in the Russian imperial army. It is noted that the institutionalization of military archeology began by organizing specialized scientific research institutions, publications, and museums. The Odessa Society of History and Antiquities, the Historical Society of Nestor the Chronicler, the Kiev Department of the Imperial Russian Military Historical Society worked in this branch. The problems of military archeology were constantly discussed during archaeological congresses (in particular in Kiev, Odessa, Kharkov, Yekaterinoslav), which were important events in the scientific life of the Russian Empire since the second half of the nineteenth century. In the field of military archeology worked figures of the Ukrainian national movement, such as D. Yavornitsky, who was an expert on the history of Zaporozhian Cossacks. Therefore, by the beginning of the twentieth century, the research problems of military archeology were defined. By the same time, an institutional base for the development of this new branch of scientific knowledge was formed.
Keywords: military history, military archeology, fortifications, battlefields, weapons, ammunition.