National Technical University of Ukraine «Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute»
Based on archival documents and specialized scholarly works, the author analyzes
key characteristics in class approach to student training in higher technical
school in UkrSSR during 1920’s —1930’s. The Kyiv Polytechnic Institute and the
outcome of this process in this institution are taken as a case study.
The author concluded that in 1920’s —1930’s the system of higher education
of USSR and particularly UkrSSR stood in the centre of active social transformation.
Soviet regime did everything possible to turn students and teaching staff
into ardent supporters of new society and of Soviet life-style, prophets of communist
ideology among general public. Following their main aim, e.g. absolute
control over the society, the bolshevists broke down historical traditions in higher education, radically reorganized its structure, eliminated the universities until
their reestablishment in 1933, forced the «proletarianization» of students and
teaching staff. All this caused conflicts between different «life-styles» in higher
educational institutuons, particularly within technical training specialists. The
means of the «proletarianization» were such as network expansion of working
faculties and their students, introducing orientation courses for children of workers
and peasants, sending communist party members on duty to study in higher
educational institutuons, regular «purges» of students, class principle of admission
into higher educational institutuons and selective distribution of material
aid to students etc.
Massive reorganizations in the system of higher education was aimed to fit it
into industrial needs as much as possible. This process was not very well elaborated
and politically grounded. As the result, the educational process was complicated
and the quality of technical training dropped.
Keywords: higher technical education, class approach, teaching staff, students,
Kyiv Polytechnic institute.