Institute of Archaeology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
The article deals with ethnic features on human skulls from Ancient Russian
rural and Brigade burial grounds of Chernihiv-Siverian region (the 10th — 13th
Cent.) without Murom-Ryazan principality and Tmutorokan. The villages and towns are studies separately. General male group (105 skulls) has dolichocranic
case brain. The altitudinal diameter of the skull and the otic height are moderate.
The width of frontal bone belongs to moderate measurements. The face is
moderately high and mesognatic. The orbits are moderately high. The nose is low,
moderately wide, and moderately protruded. The nasal bridge is high. These features
indicate the Caucasoid race. The face is strongly horizontally profiled. The
canine fossa in rural series is shallow. The male rural series is related to Pontian
type of Slavic tribes according to general anthropological typology. It also
has dolichocranic type with moderate face as well as siverians, radymychs, drehovychs,
and kryvychs from Smolensk and Tver. Consequently the hypothesis of
P. Pokas about the mesocranic case brain as typical feature of Ancient Russian
population of Chernihiv and Chernihiv-Siverian region is not valid.
Female group of Chernihiv and Chernihiv-Siverian region (103 skulls) has
mesocranic cas brand. The cranial base lenth and horizontal circumference
via craniological point ofrion are moderate. The altitudinal diameter of the
case brain is moderate. The forehead is moderately wide. The face is mesognatic,
moderately high and wide, strongly profiled. The orbits are moderately
high. The nasal hole is moderately wide. The nasal bridge is high. The nose is
strongly protrudes. Generally female skulls also belong to Caucasian race according
to craniological data. Female series from Chernihiv-Siverians region
belongs to polian tribes (Kyivan polian women) with mesocranic case brain, moderately wide face and strongly protruded mesorhynic nose according to
general anthropological typology. Generally after canoniacal analysis in craniometry
the probed group is similar to skulls from Chernihiv. It is possible
to confirm the conclusions of T. Aleksieieva about the similarity of Chernihiv
population to the population of surrounding villages according to anthropological
data. Female and male rural series from Chernihiv-Siverian region have
been formed on different anthropological basis.
Keywords: craniometry, paleoanthropology, oldrussian, Chernihiv region,
entombment, Chernihiv-Siverian region.