The Ivan Franko National University of Lviv
The article is about Adam Fisher, one of the most prominent Polish ethnologists
of the first half of 20th century, a teacher (associate professor, professor) of
Lviv University (1921–1941), and a founder of a scientific ethnological school.
Based on the analysis of Fischer’s works («Rusyns. Ethnographic essay of Rus’»
(1928) and «Ethnographic essay of Southeast Poland» (1939)), the author of the
article describes the ethnologist’s contribution to the development of historical
and ethnographic zoning of Ukrainian ethnic territory, with emphasis on the positive
and negative aspects. Thus, in the structure of Ukrainian ethnicity A. Fischer
singled out such groups as the «Carpathian Rusyns», «real Rusyns»,
«Pidlyashans», «Polishchuks» and «Ukrainians». Separately the ethnologist mentions
some smaller groups. The author of article shows that the weaknesses of
Adam Fischer’s concept of zoning was caused by professors’ work in line with the
official ideology of the interwar Poland; and among other things by the use the
term «Rusyns» instead of the actual term «Ukrainians». Despite the shortcomings,
Adam Fischer’s contribution to the development of historical and ethnographic
zoning of Ukraine is significant, because he was one of the first to highlight the
area of Opillya (the central part of nowadays Lviv region).
Keywords: Adam Fisсher, ethnology, ethnography, Ukrainians, traditional culture,
historical and ethnographic zoning.